Sunday, January 5, 2020

Absence of Evidence, or Evidence of Absence; A paper on...

Absence of Evidence, or Evidence of Absence? A paper on Animal Consciousness nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Consciousness is a difficult term to grasp; so much so, that many scientists will not even attempt to define the term, much less search for it’s evidence. Most however, do agree that consciousness must include certain aspects; specifically cognition, self-awareness, memory, and abstract thought. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Lesley J. Rogers describes consciousness as, â€Å"related to awareness, intelligence, and complex cognition, as well as language. Consciousness may be manifested in self-awareness, awareness of others, intentional behavior, including intentional communication, deception of others, and in the†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In Dr. Pepperberg’s book, The Alex Studies, she taught the parrot to be able to recognize different objects by color, shape, and material. He was even able to eventually distinguish between concepts such as â€Å"bigger,† â€Å"smaller,† â€Å"same,† â€Å"different,† â€Å"over,† and â€Å"under.† When asked to identify objects, Alex correctly identified, on first try, 80% of all objects presented in over 200 tests (45). He was also able to correctly pair different labels together to fit a certain object; for example color and material. After only two years of traini ng, Alex was able to communicate with contextual and conceptual use of human speech. He could identify, request, and refuse a set of objects for play or food (50). Dr. Pepperberg also took precautions to ensure that she had not allowed for any â€Å"cues† to tip off Alex to a correct answer, as in the case of â€Å"Clever Hans.† nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;These animals also demonstrated memory, another of the aspects of consciousness. Many behaviorists believe that animals act only on instinct, or on conditioned responses to stimuli. Others, like Lesley J. Rogers, believe that memories actually play an important part in an animal’s behavior. â€Å"The uniqueness of an individual is not simply encoded in the enormous diversity of our genetic code (our inheritance) but is established by our uniqueShow MoreRelated Definition Essay – Defining the Soul of Man1235 Words   |  5 Pagessocratically define Soul. More on this later: Soul, or Consciousness, is, without a doubt, tied up within the billions of curious things called synapses and cells, deep inside the brain. There are cases of people without consciousness, without the all important I. Usually this happens through the onset of a coma, or sometimes the hippocampus is damaged. (which is where short-term memory, a necessary component of consciousness, is located.) These people do not function properly, and are unawareRead MoreDifferences Between Object And Colour Essay1667 Words   |  7 Pagesenvironment! 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